Tesla Model Y Review

The New ‘Coolness’ of Driving

Why the Tesla Model Y Can Inspire a Petrolhead

I love driving, and since 1970 I have had personal experiences with many different car brands and models. The term “old school petrolhead” fits me quite well, because traditional sports cars fascinate me, and I love to drive sports cars on roads and tracks or to drift in closed-off driving areas. Nevertheless, I am enthusiastic and convinced about electric vehicles (EVs), because one is the thrill of dedicated “horse and rider” interaction, the other is relaxed, comfortable, and sustainable mobility from A to B. This is the realization that has matured in me during several practical tests, and what became a conviction at a recent extensive test drive of the new Tesla Model Y. Here, I would like to explain why.

The EV Has Arrived

For many who have experienced a fully electric car for a while themselves, driving a conventional internal combustion vehicle (ICE) feels almost cumbersome, because an EV is much easier and more relaxed to drive. In short, you get in, select “D” for Drive or “R” for Reverse at the steering wheel, and then push the accelerator pedal. No starter, no clutch, no gearshift in the center console, no handbrake, the EV simply takes off smoothly and quietly. There is no engine noise, no smell, no smoke, no exhaust fumes, just a gentle whirring and the reassuring rolling sound of the wheels on the road.

Registration figures for EVs are rising year on year in Germany despite the relatively higher purchase price. According to the Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA), battery electric vehicles (BEVs) achieved a 13.6 percent share of new registrations in the first seven months of 2022, an increase of 27.1 percent.

EVs That I Have Tested

Since March 2015, I have reported four times on Oberland.de about my experiences with EVs. First, the BMW i3, which was introduced in 2013 and caused quite a stir with its bold body design and futuristic-looking interior. That’s because the i3 was radically different for a BMW and at the same time technologically innovative with a body structure made of carbon and ecologically sustainable materials in the interior. It still drove like a BMW, i.e., agile, sporty, and sure-footed. But registration figures in Germany remained below 3,000 units in each of the first four years. Was the i3 too early, too radical, too expensive, or was it the initially relatively low range of a battery charge of 200 to 270 kilometers (source: ADAC) compared to a combustion engine? Most of the approximately 250,000 BMW i3s produced were sold outside of Germany, and it wasn’t until 2019-2021, before production ceased in June 2022, that the i3 gained much popularity in Germany. 2021 became its most successful sales year to date, with more than 12,000 new registrations in Germany. In the meantime, it has almost achieved cult status.


But it was to be a U.S. developer of all-electric vehicles, completely unknown until around 2010, that would successfully blaze the trail as the pioneer of electric mobility, with its EVs designed from the ground up: Tesla.

Tesla is now the world’s leading manufacturer of EVs, followed by Chinese manufacturer BYD. Initially hardly noticed or taken seriously, Tesla has passed conventional carmakers during the CO2 crisis and following “Dieselgate” with its sophisticated ecosystem of innovative vehicles and software, Supercharger charging infrastructure, wall boxes, power walls, and solar roofs. As of July 2022, Tesla has produced and sold nearly 2 million EVs worldwide.

The great race by traditional car manufacturers to catch up has long been in full swing, and there is now a wide range of both fully electric cars (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid cars (PHEVs). But for the most part, these still closely resemble conventional internal combustion vehicles with an electric motor instead of a gasoline or diesel engine under the hood. Or the few EVs that have been developed from scratch mostly still lack Tesla’s drive efficiency, software quality, and, not least, a comprehensive ecosystem for operating and maintaining the vehicles. Here, Tesla remains clearly ahead.

You can compare Tesla’s market and product development with that of Apple since the launch of the iPhone in 2007. The innovation of an existing product – the look, the hardware, the software, the operating concept, the ecosystem, the entire user experience – is completely different. For many, this takes some getting used to at first, and some stick with the Blackberry, Siemens, or Nokia phone. But the manufacturers that follow the example of the successful innovator, such as Samsung, Xiaomi, and Vivo, catch up and become equally successful on the market with their comparable devices at some point.

Tesla Roadster, 1st Generation

The original Tesla Roadster was marketed from 2008 to 2012 and was based on the British Lotus Elise roadster. It delighted sports car enthusiasts with its performance, handling, and range of up to 400 kilometers, and it was not least the unusually quick acceleration of the small sports car that surprised car fans and drew attention to the manufacturer Tesla. Around 2,500 of the Roadster were sold worldwide, costing around 100,000 US dollars during its production period. Anyone who wants to buy one of these rare Tesla cars today must put at least 200,000 euros on the table.

Model S

Tesla’s first mass-produced model, introduced in Germany in mid-2012, was the Model S, a large sedan in the order of magnitude of an Audi A8, BMW 7’er series, or Mercedes S-Class. During my Oberland.de test in 2015 with a Model S P85D, I was able to convince myself that it was possible to cover long distances comfortably and easily with this EV: I drove it from Munich to Copenhagen in one day, and back then I found enough charging options along the way at Tesla Superchargers. My conclusion after 3,800 kilometers with the Model S was: “Driving a Tesla Model S is like flying, only better. This electric car certainly passes for a luxurious touring sedan, because four adults can travel in it more than comfortably, and thanks to the two trunks – front and rear – and the large tailgate, it also offers significantly more space for luggage than a corresponding car with a bulky combustion engine and complex transmission.”

Model X

In 2016, the Tesla Model X appeared with its eye-catching rear “Falcon Wing Doors” as they are called. It is a premium all-wheel drive “crossover”, or as I called it at the time: “Spacious Grand Turismo”. That’s because the Model X has the space of a minivan and the comfort of a Grand Turismo touring sedan as it’s based on the same platform as the Model S but built higher. I was able to take a Model X P100D on a long-distance practical test in 2017, covering a good 2,500 kilometers. I subsequently concluded that “long-distance driving with the Model X offers a new quality of travel. You get used to a relaxed, fluid, anticipatory driving style because, with single-pedal driving and the associated use of the regenerative braking effect, you rarely accelerate hard and almost never hit the brakes. The result: less stress.”

Model 3

In spring 2019, the long-awaited Tesla Model 3 mid-size sedan was delivered for the first time in Germany. It is a four-door, five-seat sedan the size of an Audi A4, BMW 3 Series, or Mercedes C-Class that has been in production since 2017; but due to high demand worldwide (June 2018 more than 400,000 pre-orders), the first vehicles did not officially arrive in Europe until two years later. Meanwhile, more than 1 million Model 3 were built, and it became the best-selling EV in Europe in 2021. I drove the Model 3 in the Long Range version for a week in the summer of 2020 and concluded that the Model 3 is a fascinating and forward-looking premium electric car that guarantees a lot of driving pleasure. It is comfortable, fast, agile, and suitable for everyday use for all trips in local traffic, as well as for long distances and vacation trips.

Model Y

Tesla Model Y Performance

Origin and Profile

Recently, I had the opportunity to drive one of the first Tesla Model Y Performance “Made in Germany” for ten days. It is the first Tesla model from the new Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg, where the Model Y Performance will be produced for German customers from the end of the first quarter of 2022. Model Ys delivered earlier in Germany are almost all built at the Gigafactory Shanghai, where a state-of-the-art production process is also used. The expectations for Tesla built in the car country Germany are even higher because the Gigafactory Berlin is Tesla’s fifth and so far most advanced and efficient plant ever.

A car body is traditionally assembled from many stamped metal parts by folding them and then gluing or welding them together. With a new, gigantic die-casting machine, Tesla has significantly reduced the number of metal parts that need to be assembled for a Model Y body at its Gigafactory Berlin. Currently, the rear underbody is made from a single casting; in the future, this will also be done with the front underbody. This simplified production technique enables even greater rigidity and production quality of the body.

Tesla describes the Model Y as a “mid-size SUV designed for maximum versatility and safety,” while sometimes it is referred to as a “crossover,” because the definitions are not clear. The car has a highly rigid, self-supporting body and ground clearance like a sporty passenger car – so it is not designed for off-road excursions. It’s based fundamentally on the Model 3 midsize sedan, with which the chassis, wheelbase, and powertrain are virtually identical, as are the seats, dashboard, touch display, and steering wheel. Still, the Model Y is noticeably larger: just under 6 centimeters longer, a good 7 centimeters wider, and, most importantly, 18 centimeters taller than the Model 3. So, it’s a roomy touring sedan with a pleasantly high seating position, plenty of legroom and headroom for rear-seat passengers, and plenty of space for luggage in the rear trunk with its large, automatic opening and closing tailgate. The panoramic glass roof also contributes to the feeling of spaciousness.

Tesla Model Y and Model 3 side by side

What is initially striking about a Tesla compared to EVs from traditional car manufacturers is the consistency in concept with which the car has been thought out and designed.

The body has round and smooth shapes without unnecessary openings, folds, or ornaments, and even the underbody is completely smooth and closed. As a result, the car achieves a very low drag coefficient (CW value) of 0.23. Under the front hood, you find a regular and neat 80-liter storage space instead of an engine bay full of cables, hoses, belts, fluid containers, and the like.

Like the Model 3, the Model Y doesn’t require a key; instead, you pair it once and for all with the Tesla app on your smartphone, then unlock or lock it automatically when you approach or move away from the car. The app offers numerous other functions for remote control, such as setting the air conditioning, retrieving the charging status, determining the location, summoning, or parking the vehicle, and much more.

All the controls inside the car can be accessed via a 15-inch touchscreen centered on the dashboard in landscape format, and everything is arranged intuitively and clearly. This eliminates almost all of the mechanical switches and knobs that you find in other cars spread across the dashboard and center console in varying arrangements, shapes, and sizes. In addition, the Tesla voice control works excellently.

As with all Tesla, the Model Y’s features and functions will be enhanced and improved over time, free of charge, through frequent over-the-air software updates.

The guiding principle for the car’s design seems to have been a statement by Leonardo da Vinci: “Simplicity is the ultimate perfection.”

How Does the Model Y Drive?

The Model Y I drove was the top-of-the-line “Performance” version with all-wheel drive, 21-inch wheels with very wide sports tires, and an output of 534 hp. On paper, this promises a sporty driving experience, and indeed: Despite a vehicle height of 162.4 centimeters, the Model Y’s center of gravity is very low due to the batteries in the floor. In addition, the suspension is tuned sportily stiff, and the steering is quite direct. This results in very good road-holding and a high level of active driving safety. The downside is a slightly limited comfort on bumpy roads and cobblestones, which is acceptable, though, for a car with such a dynamic driving set-up.

The General German Automobile Club (ADAC) had the following verdict when testing the Model Y:

“In terms of driving safety, it leaves nothing to be desired and drives stably through the obstacle course. The electric car is also convincing in terms of driving dynamics. The achievable speeds are high before it pushes over the front axle in a well-controlled manner at the limits. Even under load changes, the Tesla remains largely true to its cornering line.

The sensitive ESP control in combination with the lightning-fast power distribution ensures very safe cornering behavior, even and especially when the accelerator pedal is used extensively. Traction is impeccable due to the two driven axles and the very sensitive traction control despite the strong powertrain performance.

The Model Y’s brakes are generously dimensioned and manage a short braking distance of under 35 meters from 100 kilometers per hour. That is a very good value.

In the “Vehicle” menu of the touchscreen, various response characteristics of the car can be set under the “Pedals & Steering” item. For example, acceleration can be set in two stages, “Casual” and “Sport”. Here, the “Casual” setting proved to be very easy for me to moderate on the accelerator pedal and by no means lagging or imprecise, but more in line with “cool”. Because powerful and vigorous acceleration is also available in this setting without delay. The “Sport” setting, on the other hand, requires gentle handling of the accelerator pedal because it spontaneously sets the enormous power of the 534 hp free and enables acceleration from zero to 100 kilometers per hour in just 3.7 seconds.

The steering feel can be adjusted in three stages depending on road conditions, speed, and personal preference: from “Comfort” (smooth) to “Normal” and “Sport” (firm, very precise). However, the steering feel is direct in all three settings, so you always have a good sense of control.

In addition, you can set the car’s behavior when stopping to a standstill, for example at a traffic light, intersection, or exit, in three different modes: “Roll” (like disengaged without braking), “Creep” (like a conventional automatic transmission in “D”) or “Hold” (like activated handbrake). I chose the “Hold” setting because it brakes the car every time it stops on any slope; the brake immediately releases imperceptibly when moving on.

Consumption and Range

My practical test of a total of almost 1,800 kilometers included a trip from a Supercharger 50 kilometers south of Munich to Berlin Potsdamer Platz (round trip 1,300 km), a trip from there via country roads to the Gigafactory in Berlin-Brandenburg (round trip 100 km), and various city and interurban trips of 30 to 80 kilometers each. This resulted in total consumption of 17.8 kWh per 100 kilometers. With an effectively usable battery capacity of a good 70 kWh, this results in a range of about 400 kilometers.

Consumption displayed on the 15″ touch display

On the Autobahn trip to Berlin, I managed with one recharge at the Supercharger Münchberg on the A9 and still had a remaining capacity of 12 percent when I arrived in Berlin. On this trip, I generally drove at the speed limit and up to 130 kilometers per hour, occasionally somewhat faster up to 160 kilometers per hour. The outside temperature that day was over 30 degrees Celsius, and the air conditioning was set to 20 to 22 degrees Celsius for the entire trip.

On the way back, I drove the 170 kilometers from the previous Supercharger on the A9 at speeds of up to 200 kilometers per hour (average speed of about 115 kilometers per hour) and consumed 23.1 kWh per 100 kilometers, which would have given me a range of about 300 kilometers.

Charging the Battery

Anyone who buys an EV ideally has the option of installing their own so-called wall box at home in their parking space or in the garage. That way, the car can simply be charged overnight at 11 kW up to the set charging limit, and you can then take off every morning with a fully charged vehicle. What’s more, the price of electricity at home is usually much lower than at public charging points, of which there were 52,203 in Germany at the beginning of 2022, according to the Federal Network Agency, of which 44,486 were normal charging points (charging power typically 22 kW) and 7,717 were fast chargers (charging power typically 50 to 240 kW).

With a total of around 1,900 fast-charging spots at 144 locations (as of October 2022), Germany has the largest Tesla Supercharger charging network in Europe, followed by France (1500+) and Norway (1400+). Fast charging sites typically have eight to 20 charging columns, each with a peak power of 150 kW (Supercharger Generation V2) or 250 kW (V3). The latter can charge the Model Y in 15 minutes with a range of 241 kilometers. In our practical test, we typically needed 25 to 35 minutes to reach the charging limit of 85 percent.

By the way (spoiler alert!): To shorten the perceived waiting time while charging, all Tesla models offer extensive entertainment on the 15-inch display. There are fun and entertaining programs like Boom Box, light shows, karaoke, Spotify, paint program, Netflix, Mars surface, Emissions sounds(!), and much more – you won’t get bored at the charging station.


If one is dependent on a car for private or business purposes and cannot get by with occasional car sharing or rental cars, then there are now many widely known reasons to acquire an EV. But there are also many individual and subjective reasons why one would want to stay with a conventional gasoline or diesel powered vehicle. These can be economic or practical reasons, but also simply out of conviction.

I have long since concluded from my own experience that EVs will dominate our roads – urban, rural, and highway – in a few years. Not because we are being forced to do so, but because we want it ourselves. Because an EV will be a more pleasant and simpler vehicle for the vast majority of our individual transport.

The selection of EVs is already very large today, and new brands and models are being introduced by the month. Which EV you choose will be as individual as it is today with an internal combustion vehicle. But one thing is certain from my experience:

In a Tesla (S-3-X-Y), you’ll always experience the new ‘coolness’ of driving.

Update 21. October 2022:

Tesla Model Y from the Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg are now offered in two new special colors. While production is ramping up steadily and has now surpassed 2,000 units per week, the first newly developed paint colors from the world’s most advanced paint shop are now available: Midnight Cherry Red, a highly saturated metallic color with dramatic depth that changes with the light, and Quicksilver, a dynamic color with a liquid metallic effect.

In Giga Berlin’s highly automated spray cabin, up to 13 layers of paint are applied in the painting process. Highly pigmented metallic paint materials produce a special gloss effect here that emphasizes the contours of the vehicle and makes the color “come alive” with the viewing angle.

The two new colors are available to order for both Model Y Performance and Model Y Long Range, and deliveries are expected to start in the second quarter of 2023.

Tesla Model 3 Review

Tesla Model 3

I first wrote about electromobility in March 2015 as part of a review of the BMW i3.

In June 2015 I drove the Tesla Model S in a long-distance test from Munich to Copenhagen, once across Denmark and back for almost 3.800 kilometers, and in June 2017 I did a long-distance road test with the Tesla Model X to see how the Model X proves itself as a “Grand Tourismo”. Despite the fact that the Tesla Superchargers at that time were considerably sparser than today, the long-distance capability of the two top models was convincing even then.

The time is ripe for electromobility

The idea of a purely battery electric powered car is old, as Ferdinand Porsche already presented the Lohner Porsche with a purely electric drive at the Paris World Exhibition in 1900. However, the availability and storage possibilities of sufficient electrical energy were simply not available at the beginning of the 20th century. Instead, it became the century of oil production and combustion, and the inventions of the gasoline and diesel engines fundamentally changed the direction of development of drive technology for passenger cars.

A good 100 years later, things look quite different: Electricity is always and everywhere available, can be stored in high density and converted highly efficiently into kinetic energy in modern electric motors. In addition, more and more electricity is being generated from renewable sources such as sun, wind and water, and there are practically no limits to the future availability of environmentally friendly electricity.

The driver and the followers

The pioneer of the new electromobility is Tesla Motors, which was founded in 2003 in Silicon Valley by an electrical engineer and a computer scientist. Shortly afterwards, based on a prototype and the visionary drive of the Canadian-US American entrepreneur Elon Musk, it was built up to what it is today: the world’s leading manufacturer of electric cars. Initially hardly noticed or taken seriously, Tesla caught conventional car manufacturers cold in the very CO2 crisis and the diesel problem and pushed the paradigm shift to electromobility.

In the meantime, almost all manufacturers are following suit and intensifying the race to catch up with Tesla’s clear lead of currently certainly two to three years. As of April 2020, a total of over one million Tesla vehicles are on the road worldwide, of which more than 525,000 are Model 3’s. As a result, the Model 3 overtook the Nissan Leaf as the world’s best-selling e-car in mid-2019. Registration figures are also rising significantly in Germany. As of May 2020, almost 25,000 Tesla cars are registered in this country, more than half of which are Model 3s, which was introduced in Germany just a year ago. Reason enough to take a closer look at this model to find out why this purely electrically powered car is selling so successfully.

So, I went on tour with the Model 3, this time along the German Alpine Road from Bad Tölz to Berchtesgaden, up into the Bavarian Forest and back. I spent spent four days and a total of 1,000 kilometers on some of the most beautiful roads of Bavaria, but also on fast freeways such as the Autobahn A92 from Deggendorf to Munich and the A95 between Munich and Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The question was: How does this spectacular and technologically advanced car drive, and what about charging and range in everyday use?

If you are interested in the detailed travel report on the route, the sights, and the selected stopovers, you will find it on Oberland.de.

About the vehicle

The Tesla Model 3 is a four-door, five-seater sedan the size of an Audi A4, BMW 3 Series or Mercedes C Class. Four adults can be comfortably seated in it, a fifth person fits in the middle of the back for shorter distances, and because of the large, full-length panoramic glass roof (with UV protection), headroom is very good both front and back. In general, the space available and the stowage volume is unusually good, because a large number of components are omitted in an e-car compared to a conventional car with an internal combustion engine: in the rear, for example, the tank and in the front, voluminous units such as the combustion engine with clutch, gearbox and radiator. In addition, there is no central tunnel running lengthwise through the interior because no exhaust system with silencer and no cardan shaft are required. Instead, there is a trunk at both the front and rear and plenty of legroom for the middle space of the rear seat. The front individual seats are very comfortable, offer good support and are electrically adjustable in all directions, including the lumbar support.

The vehicle provided by Tesla Germany was the “Dual Motor Long Range” version. This version is equipped with an electric motor each on the front axle and the rear axle for four-wheel drive with a total output of 340 kW (462 hp) and a large 75kWh battery, for a maximum range of 560 kilometres according to the WLTP test procedure introduced in the EU in 2017.

Driving style and consumption are closely related

In practice, WLTP test values are hardly ever achieved. But with a relaxed and fluid driving style, between 375 kilometres and 425 kilometres were quite achievable in everyday use, which corresponds to a consumption of 17 to 20 kWh per 100 kilometres. The decisive factor for the range is above all a forward-looking driving style, in which the energy recovery (recuperation) of the electric motors instead of the foot brake is optimally used to reduce speed. Apart from parking (P) and neutral (N), there is only one forward gear (D) and a reverse gear (R). As soon as you select “D”, you can drive off; and in fact, it is very easy and pleasant to regulate the speed of the vehicle completely with the accelerator pedal, from starting to stopping. Recuperation is noticeably variable: depending on the modulation of the accelerator pedal, the car accelerates or brakes, and if you take your foot completely off the pedal, the braking is just right for a comfortable, smooth stop. When stopping, the car is automatically held, so that it does not roll forward or backward on an incline.

For low energy consumption, low wind resistance is crucial in addition to a forward-looking driving style and optimal use of recuperation. This is where the Model 3 with its sleek, smooth body performs extremely well. At 0.23, its drag coefficient (cw value) is well below that of comparable saloons and sports cars, whose cw value is typically above 0.30.

Ultimately, however, the decisive intelligence that ensures low consumption is in the driver’s seat.


Tesla operates 72 of its own fast charging stations, so-called Superchargers, along the motorway network in Germany with a total of 666 charging spots. Here, the Model 3 can charge an almost empty battery to a range of 270 kilometres in 15 minutes. If you want to fully recharge, it will take just under an hour. However, the optimum charge is about 80% of the battery capacity, and this is reached in 30 to 45 minutes with a nearly empty battery, depending on the specific performance of the Supercharger.

Further Tesla charging stations can be found at so-called Destination Chargers at hotels, restaurants, supermarkets and shopping centres, which are available to their customers. Destination Chargers are currently available at around 500 locations in Germany, typically offering two charging spots each. In Austria and Switzerland, the density of Tesla charging stations is significantly higher than in Germany, so you can travel there with your Tesla with peace of mind.

In addition, there are currently around 19,500 independent charging stations in Germany with almost 64,000 charging spots, where a Model 3 can also be charged using a standard TYPE 2 or CCS connection – around 4,000 more than a year ago. By way of comparison, there are currently 14,400 filling stations for petrol and diesel in Germany (as of April 2020).

However, a separate wall charging station (“wall box”) at home is the ideal solution: most private homes allow a maximum charging rate of 11 kW, which corresponds to a range of up to 65 kilometers per charging hour. This is more than sufficient for charging overnight. This means that you usually drive from home with a full battery and only need to charge on the road if you drive more than 400 kilometers per day or are on the road for more than a day.

What about autonomous driving?

Model 3 is equipped with comprehensive driver assistance systems, such as proximity cruise control, lane departure warning, lane change assistant, light assistant, emergency brake assistant, parking assistant and more. The hardware for fully autonomous driving (SAE level 5) is already installed in Model 3, so that the functionality can be upgraded in future via software updates over the air. This includes a radar sensor in the front bumper and eight cameras all around. At present, Level 3 of autonomous driving has been implemented, and anyone who likes to be driven by the car instead of driving themselves can look forward to future software upgrades. In any case, the currently active assistance systems will contribute to increased road safety.

Those who (still) prefer to drive themselves and have fun doing so can enjoy the excellent sporty driving characteristics and the amazing dynamics and performance of the Model 3. In a test review from November 2019, the ADAC rated the Model 3s electric drive system “outstanding”, and the test engineers certified the Model 3’s exceptional driving performance, running characteristics and power delivery. ADAC quote: “The handling of the Model 3 also meets the highest demands. The advantage of the all-wheel-drive version: depending on where more drive power is needed, the electric motors on the front or rear axle can react variably and at lightning speed. Both versions master the evasion test by slightly understeering, but sliding over the front axle in a well-controlled manner. The suspension is sporty and taut here and there. Small deficits in suspension comfort are gladly forgiven. The steering convinces with a harmonious feel, good precision and clear centering. Drive influences are not an issue despite the enormous torque. The Model 3 does not show any weakness when braking either. 34.1 or 34.4 metres of braking distance are sufficient to decelerate from 100 km/h to a standstill.”

I can absolutely agree with this assessment by the ADAC. The Model 3 accelerates from a standstill like an arrow launched from a spanned bow – continuing to well beyond speed limits. Handling is very precise and, with its wide track and wide sports tyres, its low centre of gravity and balanced weight distribution, fast cornering is both fun and safe. On a straight it is stable as a maglev train.

The operating concept

For many people, the “driver interface” of the Model 3 will initially take some getting used to, because there is no conventional instrument panel. Instead, virtually all displays and functions are provided by a single, centrally located, iPad-like 15-inch display. Even the glove compartment is opened via this touch display. There are just two levers on the steering column – one on the left for the indicators and wipers, one on the right for the gears (R, N, D and P) and the cruise control. On the steering wheel itself there is a spherical scroll wheel to the left and right of the horn. The left-hand scroll wheel is used for volume control and for adjusting the side mirrors. The right scroll wheel is used to set the desired speed of the cruise control or, when the vehicle is stationary, the height and angle of the steering wheel. The large display is very easy to use because the menus are logically structured and the symbols are intuitively understandable. Important and frequently used functions are easy to reach, only the variety of functions and settings seem overwhelming at first glance. Ultimately, the clear visual presentation of the functions on the display simplifies operation in comparison to the large number of scattered mechanical rotary, pushbutton and toggle switches that are usually found in modern cars.

However, a head-up display that projects the most important driving information, such as speed and remaining range, onto the windshield in the driver’s field of vision would be a desirable feature.

An interesting feature made possible by the cameras installed all around the car is the so-called Sentry Mode. When this is activated, the cameras and sensors monitor the vehicle’s surroundings while it is parked and locked. If a threat is detected, a warning or alarm is triggered depending on the type of threat, and the cameras record videos of the vehicle’s surroundings.


The Tesla Model 3 is a fascinating and trendsetting premium electric car that guarantees a lot of driving pleasure. As a four-door mid-size sedan, it is very comfortable, practical and absolutely suitable for everyday use for all journeys, short and long, including holiday trips and long-distance trips on the motorway. Often criticized shortcomings in the workmanship of the Model 3 could not be reproduced in the vehicle provided. The paintwork and the gap dimensions were flawless, nothing rattled, and the interior was also perfectly finished.

More information about the Tesla Model 3:

Tesla Motors website

ADAC test of November 5, 2019

IBM investerer i München

munich_infographic_9-30-v4IBM investerer 200 mio. dollar i et nyt worldwide “Watson Internet of Things (IoT)” headquarter i München. Det er til dato en af de største investeringer IBM har foretaget i Europa.

Her vil man fremover dels udarbejde nye IoT-løsniger omkring Blockchain og sikkerheds-teknlogier, og dels i samarbejde med kunder finde på nye ideer og innovationer til at skabe nytte og økonomisk værdi af de enorme mængder af sensor data, som løbende genereres i for eksempel køretøjer og produktionsanlæg. Det drejer sig bl.a. også om at udvikle løsninger til at øge effektiviteten og produktiviteten i industrien gennem kombinationen af Big Data fra IoT og kunstig intelligens fra Watson.

IBM har allerede i dag ca. 6.000 internationale kunder, som udnytter Watson’s kognitive egenskaber og IoT data; det er 2.000 flere end i begyndelsen af året.

Det nye Watson IoT headquarter i München skal for første gang omfatte kollaborationsmuligheder i form af laboratorier, hvor kunder kan samarbejde med IBM’s forskere, ingeniører og designere omkring udviklingen af innovationer indenfor specielt brancherne automobil, elektronik, produktion, sundhed og forsikring. Her er det hensigten i fællesskab at udvikle koncepter, løsninger og forretningsmodeller.

Tyskland har fokus på den 4. industrielle revolution – “Industrie 4.0” – og er godt i gang med digitalisering af produktionssektoren, og metropolregionen omkring München er et absolut hot spot i den sammenhæng, hvor know how og teknologivirksomheder er koncentreret. Det er derfor naturligt, at IBM har valgt at placere et hovedkontor for IoT, Big Data og kunstig intelligens netop i München.

Innovative underleverandører i Bayern

Bilindustriens underleverandører mødtes i BMW Welt den 4.-5. juli 2016

Automobilindustrien er stærkt repræsenteret i Bayern, faktisk er det Bayerns absolut største industrigren med en omsætning på over 110 milliarder Euro, hvoraf eksportandelen udgør næsten 70%. Det hænger sammen med at Audi, BMW, Mini og MAN har hjemme i Bayern, og at 25% af alle biler der produceres i Tyskland kommer fra Bayern. Desuden er der i Bayern flere end 1.100 store og små industri- og ingeniørvirksomheder, som er en del af bilindustriens ‘supply chain’ som direkte eller indirekte underleverandører (Tier 1–4) til de nævnte mærker – såvel som de andre mærker i Sydtyskland (Mercedes, Smart, Porsche) og resten af Tyskland (navnlig Volkswagen).

Alle disse virksomheder er på mange måder i samme båd som bil producenterne (OEM), fordi de er stærkt afhængige af hinanden hvad angår den høje specifikationsgrad af de moduler og komponenter, som skal leveres ‘just-in-time and sequence’. De er desuden stærkt forbundne med hinanden gennem den forskning og udvikling der foregår omkring produktudvikling og den udveksling af knowhow, som er nødvendig.

Her spiller klynger og innovationsnetværk en vigtig rolle, som fx. klyngen Cluster Automotive og netværket BAIKA (“Bayerische Innovations- und Kooperationsinitiative Automobilzulieferindustrie”), som begge er tilknyttet organisationen Bayern Innovativ (“Gesellschaft für Innovation, Technologie- und Wissenstransfer in Bayern”). Disse organiserer i samarbejde med Verband der Automobilindustri (VDA) kongresser og workshops med solid sponsoring fra de store virksomheder i branchen. Den årlige 2-dages kongres “Zulieferer Innovativ” er netop blevet afholdt i BMW Welt i München med ca. 400 deltagere.

Ved dette års kongres var det helt tydeligt, at elektromobilitet, digitalisering og autopilot egenskaber er kommet i fokus, meget stærkere end det var tilfældet for et år siden. Selv Tesla Motors var inviteret og deltog med en bragende anderledes og åben tale om virksomhedes mission, strategi, forretningsmodel og planer. Det stryger stadig mange af de traditionelle maskiningeniører med benzin i blodet mod hårene at høre om Teslas succes og hvor branchen er på vej hen. Men man mærker helt klart impulserne fra en ny generation af fagfolk der er vokset op med internet, Apple, Google, smartphones etc., og nye virksomheder, der opstår i kombinationen af IKT, elektronik og mekanik, og som rider på bølgen af den accelererende teknologiske udvikling.

Nu er der opbrud og ombrydninger i branchen, som giver chancer for nye samarbejder og vækst for både virksomhederne og for Bayern.

Henning Larsen Architects har udført Siemens nye koncern-hovedkvarter

Med det nye hovedkontor har Siemens endog fået ny adresse: Werner-von-Siemens-Straße.
Med nyt hovedkontor har Siemens også fået ny adresse: Werner-von-Siemens-Straße.

I juni 2010 udskrev Siemens en international arkitekt konkurrence om at designe deres nye koncern-hovedkvarter i München, som tiltrak tilbud fra over 100 arkitektfirmaer fra hele verden. Udvælgelsesprocessen var lang og omfattende. Først udvalgtes 40 bureauer, som kom på short list, og til sidst var der 12 firmaer i finalen, hvoraf hele to var danske arkitekter. Endelig faldt valget i februar 2011 på forslaget fra Henning Larsen Architects, som med deres koncept og design ovebeviste juryens 22 personer.

Efter kun tre års byggetid blev det nye hovedkvarter i centrum af München indviet den 24. juni 2016 – ‘on time’ og ‘within budget’, hvilket med blik på andre store byggerier i Tyskland ikke er nogen selvfølge.

Siemens nye bygning har kostet “et mindre tre-cifret millionbeløb [i Euro]” og den har givet 1.200 medarbejdere enestående lyse og smukke arbejdsomgivelser, møde- og konferencelokaler, kantiner m.m. på et samlet areal af 45.500 kvadratmeter.

Samtidig har bygningen givet offentlig gennemgang på tværs af det store centrale areal, som den er opført på. Man kan nemlig gå til fods på kryds og tværs af bygningens stueetage, uden at gå indenfor hos Siemens. I stedet for er der stier og grønne gårde, en café, en restaurant og et moderne springvand.

Beliggenheden af bygningen er centralt i München ved siden af Wittelsbacherplatz, omgivet af Altstadt, Universiteter, Parker og Kunstmuseer. På selve Wittelsbacherplatz står i øvrigt en rytterstatue af Kurfürst Maximilian I, udført af den danske billedhugger Bertel Thovaldsen.

To vigtige mål og kriterier for den nye bygning var åbenhed og bæredygtighed, hvilket Henning Larsen Architects bogstavelig talt har sørget for. Men med bæredygtighed mentes naturligvis også ressource skånende, lavt energiforbrug og hensyn til sociale og økologiske kriterier; og det er det i høj grad også lykkedes at tilgodese. For eksempel dækkes det nye hovedkontors samlede energiforbrug af vedvarende energiformer, herunder et solcelleanlæg på taget af bygningen.

Video: “Siemens-Konzernzentrale in München eröffnet
(Kilde: muenchen.de – Das offizielle Stadtportal)


Munich Airport er nr. 1

Start of an Airbus A 340-642 from MUC
(Copyright Flughafen München GmbH / Foto: Werner Hennies)

Münchens lufthavn er Tysklands næststørste efter Frankfurt am Main, og den vokser fortsat. I perioden 1. januar til 30. juni 2014 startede og landede næsten 185.000 maskiner med ialt knap 19 mill. passagerer – det er mere end 1.000 starter eller landinger om dagen. Der var de internationale forbindelser med hele 85% af alle passagererne der stod for væksten, mens indenrigsforbindelserne havde lidt færre passagerer. Det var især de interkontinentale forbindelser, som bidrog med fremgangen, idet de havde en stigning i passagertallet på 5%. Munich Airport GmbH forventer at runde 40 mill. passagerer i år svarende til gennemsnitlig over 110.000 passagerer om dagen.

Fragtflyvningen steg med 5% til over 140.000 tons luftfragt i første halvår.

For kort tid siden blev München’s lufthavn af Skytrax-instituttet i Londen kåret til Europas bedste og Verdens tredje bedste lufthavn. Det var resultatet af en survey Skytrax har foretaget på basis af 13 mill. passagerer. For yderligere at forbedre servicen og passagertilfredsheden har lufthavnen nu også indført gratis ubegrænset trådløst internet. Det gør ophold i lufthavnen endnu mere behageligt – og for forretningsfolk mere produktivt.

München er Europas stærkeste IKT-kraftcenter

EU’s strategi til at styrke Europas industrielle og teknologiske lederrolle inden for Informations- og Kommunikation-Teknologier (IKT) baseres bl.a. på en netop gennemført undersøgelse, der har haft til formål at identificere IKT-kraftcentrene i Europa — de såkaldte ‘European ICT Poles of Excellence’ (EIPE). Resultaterne af undersøgelsen foreligger nu, og de er ligeså interessante som de er detaljerede.

En regions IKT-styrke afhænger især af forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter, evnen til at omsætte resultaterne heraf til kommercielle produkter og ydelser (innovation) samt ikke mindst evnen til at udvikle en blomstrende erhvervsaktivitet på basis af denne innovationsevne.

I undersøgelsen defineres et europæisk IKT-kraftcenter som en EU-region, der leverer top-resultater inden for IKT-produktion, forskning & udvikling og innovation, samt erhvervsaktiviteter med internationalt perspektiv og rækkevidde. De faktorer man har valgt at måle og identificere IKT-kraftcentre på kan inddeles dels i kategorierne Forskning & Udvikling, Innovation og Erhvervsaktivitet, og dels med hensyn til tre vigtige karakteristika, nemlig: Intensitet (fx. antal virksomheder, omsætning, antal medarbejdere, vækst), Internationalisering (fx. hvor mange internationale samarbejdspartnere) og Netværksaktiviteter (fx. klynger og deres rolle). Krydser man disse kategorier og karakteristika med hinanden, så får man en meningsfyldt ramme model, som vist her:

Framework for EIPE score

Resultatet for hver enkelt af de ialt 1303 undersøgte EU-regioner er beregnet som en sammensat indikator (score) bestående af 42 forskellige del-indikatorer til evaluering af de forskellige faktorer. Scoren er derefter normaliseret, således at den højeste score er sat til 100.

Den højeste score og førstepladen blandt IKT-kraftcentrene i Europa tilfalder München (score: 100). Derefter følger ganske tæt London (score: 97) og Paris (score 95). Blandt Top 30, hvor scoren hurtigt falder ned til under 50 finder vi ikke mindre end 10 tyske regioner. København ligger på en 25. plads med en score på 48.

Sammenfattende kan man konstatere, at de stærkeste regioner – d.v.s. IKT-kraftcentrene – er kendetegnet ved, at de

  • ofte er veludviklede, højteknologiske industriområder
  • har fremragende universitetet og forskningsinstitutioner
  • har langsigtede politikker for forskning og innovation
  • har historiske og geografiske fordele
  • ofte er nært forbundne med andre IKT-kraftcentre

Alle disse kendetegn er absolut gældende for München by og opland.

Følgende infografik giver en oversigt over undersøgelsens faktorer og resultater (klik for at se en stor udgave).

EIPE Poster

EU Joint Research Centre

Syd slår nord

Da muren faldt for 25 år siden og Øst- og Vesttyskland blev genforenet, stod det nye Tyskland overfor en gigantisk opgave med at integrere de nye delstater. Ikke blot opbygningen af en moderne infrastruktur (transportnet og telekommunikation), men også omstillingen og integrationen af en desolat planøkonomi i den højproduktive, vesttyske produktions-, handels- og serviceøkonomi var en kæmpe udfordring. Forskellene i indkomst og produktivitet mellem øst og vest var enorme.

Idag – en generation senere – er situationen en helt anden. Forskellene p.gr. af den tidligere deling er stort set udlignet, Tyskland er blevet en sammenhængende økonomi, befolkning og arbejdskræfter er vandret i begge retninger, og regionale forskelle er idag bestemt af andre strukturelle faktorer. Resourcer, såsom arbejdskraft og jord, brancher, bestemte virksomheder, anlægsinvesteringer, uddannelsesmuligheder, urbaniseringsgrad og rekreative omgivelser er afgørende for en regions udvikling og velstand.

Det der er sket de seneste 5-10 år er, at de sydlige tyske delstater har udviklet sig hurtigere og til større velstand end de nordlige, og det gælder ikke kun Baden-Württemberg, Bayern og Hessen, men også Thüringen og Sachsen, som begge udvikler sig bedre end flere af de “gamle” delstater.

Det er ikke længere vest som slår øst, nu er det syd der slår nord. Hvad enten det gælder beskæftigelse, uddannelse, forskning og udvikling, kriminalitet eller integration af tilflyttere fra udlandet, så står det bedre til i Bayern og Baden-Württemberg end i alle andre delstater. Den økonomiske udligningsmekanisme indbyrdes mellem de tyske delstater (“Länderfinanzausgleich”) giver et tydeligt billede af, hvilke delstater der betaler støtte til de andre. Her ser man, at Bayern (4,3 mrd. €), Baden-Würtemberg (2,5 mrd. €) og Hessen (1,7 mrd. €) betaler til samtlige andre delstater. Nordrhein-Westfalen med det industrielle Ruhr-område og storbyerne Köln, Düsseldorf, Dortmund og Essen er gået fra at være største yder i 1995 (1,8 mrd. €) til at være modtager siden 2010 (0,7 mrd. € i 2013).

Bayern og Baden-Württemberg har Tysklands laveste arbejdsløshed med hhv. 3,7% og 3,9% ledige, hvilket i praksis er fuld beskæftigelse; og Thüringen har idag mindre arbejdsløshed end Nordrhein-Westfalen. Der har været – og der er fortsat – en klar velfærds-trend i retning af den sydlige halvdel af Tyskland, og man løber i næsten enhver henseende fra nord. Siden genforeningen i 1989 er mere end 1 mio. tyskere flyttet til Bayern og Baden-Württemberg fra andre delstater. Udvandringen fra nordøst og nordvest er stadig i gang, og de fleste udflyttere er mellem 18 og 30 år.

Udenlandske tilflyttere med en god uddannelse flytter først og fremmet til Sydtyskland. I delstaten Baden-Württemberg har mere ned 25% af arbejdsstyrken udenlandske rødder, og det samme gælder for Metropolregionen München. Sydtyskland henter med andre ord kvalificeret arbejdskraft både fra udlandet og fra de nordlige delstater, som dermed på længere sigt yderligere taber vækstpotentiale p.gr. af den i forvejen stærkt aldrende tyske befolkning. Demografisk forandring er een af de største udfordringer for Tyskland i de kommende år, men syden vil være mindst påvirket heraf, så længe yngre og veluddannede arbejdskræfter fortsat strømmer til både hjemmefra og udefra.

  1. “Die unheimliche Kraft des deutschen Südens”, DIE WELT, 26.01.2014
  2. Bundesministerium der Finanzen

“München 2025”

I den kommende uge offentliggør Pricewaterhouse-Coopers (PwC) og Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI) en rapport med titlen “München 2025”. Rapporten vil præsentere resultater og konklusioner fra en undersøgelse af metropolregionen München og en sammenligning med fem andre tyske metropolregioner, nemlig Rhein-Ruhr, Frankfurt/Rhein-Main, Berlin-Brandenburg, Stuttgart und Hamburg.

Metropolregionen München omfatter foruden selve München, som er Bayern hovedstad med 1,4 mio. indbyggere, også byerne Augsburg, Ingolstadt, Kaufbeuren, Landshut og Rosenheim samt alle kommuner (“Landkreise”) inden for dette område. Det samlede befolkningsteal for regionen er godt 5,5 millioner, og dermed er det den fjerdestørste af de 11 tyske metropolregioner målt på befolkningstallet.

Hvad siger rapporten?

Facit på den kommende rapport er, at München allerede idag er den førende region i Tyskland, idet den har den stærkeste økonomiske vækst, det højeste bruttonationalprodukt (BNI) per indbygger, den største befolkningstilvækst, den laveste arbejdsløshed, de fleste store virksomheder – herunder syv ud af de 30 største tyske virksomheder i aktieindexet DAX – og den højeste produktionsandel i forhold til regionens BNI. Det viser sig (igen), at München ganske simpelt er tysk mester i alle disse kategorier.

Således konkluderer den nye rapport fra PwC og HWWI, at regionen omkring München har det største vækstpotentiale af alle regioner i Tyskland i de kommende 10-15 år. Det er et lignende resultat, som en tidligere undersøgelse gennemført af London School of Economics (LSE Cities, 2010) kom frem til.

Hvad er grunden til regionens styrke?

Der er mange faktorer som spiller sammen, men både rapporterne fra PwC og LSE Cities samt en tredje undersøgelse, gennemført af det schweiziske Prognos-Institut i 2011, fremhæver overordnet det solide industrielle fundament, som Tysklands økonomi i almindelighed og München-regionen i særdeleshed bygger på. LSE Cities anførte: “Munich is a leading German metropolitan region for high-tech activity, with a powerful innovation system. It is, arguably, Germany’s Silicon Valley – with dominant positions in electronics and advanced manufacturing.”

Industriproduktion udgør generelt set en højere andel af BNP i Tyskland end det er tilfældet for andre store lande, og det gælder ikke mindst for metropolregionen München, hvor der i særdeleshed er mange vidensintensive industrivirksomheder. I regionen arbejder mere end 50% højt kvalificerede medarbejdere inden for industrien i vidensintensive industrivirksomheder – i selve München er det endda over 75%. Det er den højeste andel blandt alle tyske metropolregioner. Akademikerandelen i industrien udgør hele 14%; også det er det højeste tal i landet.

Hvilke industrivirksomheder er det vi taler om?

Det er dels velkendte koncerner inden for brancherne automobil, elektronik, luft- og rumfart samt IKT, som fx. Audi, BMW, EADS (Airbus), MTU, MAN, Knorr Bremse, Siemens, Infineon og Osram. Men det er også et stort antal såkaldte ‘hidden champions’, som fx. Brückner, Giesecke & Devrient, KUKA, Krones eller Rohde & Schwarz. Denne gruppe omfatter især store private, ikke-børsnoterede virksomheder, som er højt specialiserede underleverandører til bestemte brancher eller (eksport-)markeder. Det er teknologi-drevne virksomheder med høj produktivitet og stor værdiskabning gennem både produkter og tilknyttede serviceydelser. For Bayerns vedkommende arbejder ca. 25% af alle industriansatte direkte eller indirekte for automobilbranchen.

Typisk investerer disse industrivirksomheder forholdvis meget i forskning og udvikling. BMW’s Forsknings- og Innovations-Centrum (FIZ) i München beskæftiger alene 20.000 medarbejdere, og i de kommende år vil man udvide med endnu 15.000 medarbejdere. Indenfor luft- og rumfart samt satellit-navigation findes der i regionen syv forskningsinstitutter, som gør lokationen til en af de førende på området i Europa.

Hvilke udfordringer stiller det regionen overfor?

De højteknologiske virksomheder har brug for kvalificerede medarbejdere med uddannelser inden for fagområderne matematik, IKT og naturvidenskab samt tekniske fag (MINT). Dem er der stigende behov for i metropolregionen München, og dette behov kan blive en flaskehals i det omfang det ikke dækkes med nyuddannede fra universiteter og erhvervsakademier i ind- og udland. Dertil kommer den demografiske udvikling, hvor forholdsvis mange vil gå på pension i de kommende år, så der bliver behov for endnu flere tilflyttere til at fylde de mange nye jobs. Iflg. PwC-rapporten bliver der frem til 2025 behov for 380.000 nye medarbejdere i regionen. München har allerede idag en stor befolkningsandel, som er tilflyttere: 36% af Münchens indbyggere er ikke født i byen, og næsten 25% har en anden nationalitet end tysk.

Udfordringerne for metropolregionen bliver altså at sørge for gode rammebetingelser, så virksomhederne kan tiltrække flere højt kvalificerede medarbejdere fra både ind- og udland. Det vil sige gode, betalbare boliger, velfungerende infrastruktur og offentlig nærtransport, samt internationale skoler og børnehaver. Givet de økonomiske udsigter og muligheder, samt en velfungerende og politisk stabil offeentlig sektor, er der nok ingen tvivl om, at det vil lykkes – så alle signaler tyder på fortsat vækst over gennemsnit i Sydtyskland.

Kilder: Welt am Sonntag, 27.10.13; Süddeutsche Zeitung, 02.10.13; LSE Cities 2010; Landeshauptstadt München, Referat für Wirtschaft und Arbeit.